Can We Use Burstiness Mathematical Modeling To Optimize Swarm Warfare Defense Systems?

Can We Use Burstiness Mathematical Modeling To Optimize Swarm Warfare Defense Systems?


For those of us who study bottlenecks in data flow and communication networks, we realize there are many ways of alleviating the challenges or overwhelming of such systems. Burstiness and the challenges it poses to data flow in networks, or 'denial of service attacks' is indeed similar, philosophically speaking, to the problems of mitigating against incoming swarms of missiles, warfighters, robotic unmanned suicide systems or the appearance of electronic decoys during a large scale attack. Since nothing is invisible, stealth technologies only allow the enemy attack to get so far, once detected, any viable attack no matter how close will rely on some form of strategy that includes swarming and overwhelming of defense systems with false positive decoy targets.

Now then, just so we are all on the same page here, let me take a moment to define terms:

(1) The Definition of Bursty: In telecommunication, the term burst transmission or data burst has the following meanings: Any relatively high-bandwidth transmission over a short period. For example, a download might use 2 Mbit / s on average, while having "peaks" bursting up to, say, 2.4 Mbit / s.

(2) The Definition of Burstiness: Burstiness is a characteristic of communications involving data that is transmitted intermittently – in bursts – rather than as a continuous stream. A burst is a transmission involving a large amount of data sent in a short time, usually triggered as a result of some threshold being reached.

(3) The Definition of Swarm in a Military Setting: Military swarming is a battlefield tactic designed to overwhelm or saturate the defenses of the principal target or objective. Military swarming is often encountered in asymmetric warfare where opposing forces are not of the same size, or capacity.

We know about other types of swarms employed by insects such as a swarm of bees overwhelming a large animal, like a bear attacking the hive to get to the honey. In warfare, it's the same game. In Vietnam the Viet Cong employed this tactic with wave upon wave of mass attacks. Today, swarm missile volleys are considered the easiest way to decisively win a Naval Battle against another Navy.

Similarly, a ground land based system might strategically launch swarms at a US Naval vessel to overwhelm the new Aegis System, once the ship runs out of projectiles for defense it is either denied that area, or risks being hit and sunk.

Okay so, there are many mathematic algorithms used to detect the onset of burstiness in electronic networks and communication systems, and strategies to re-route data, slow down input, output or processing. If this fails it could cause temporary crash of the system, loss of data, or complete backup, which has happened in the stock markets with HFT (high frequency trading) systems (cite: 1). Of course, when life and death are on the line, it could spell disaster, case in point might be during combat operations, where the important warfighter data, targeting data are giving priority while other data such as logistics, accounting, and other nonessential takes a back seat (cite: 2).

One recent paper "Quadratic sample entropy as a measure of burstiness A study in how well Renyi entropy rate and quadratic sample entropy can capture the presence of spikes in time-series data," by Kira Huselius Gylling. In the abstract it states:

"Studying various entropy measures, properties for different distributions, both theoretically and via simulation, in order to better find out how these measures could be used to characterize the predictability and burstiness of time series. We find that a low entropy can indicate a heavy- tailed distribution, which for time series corresponds to a high burstiness. Using a previous result that connects the quadratic sample entropy for a time series with the Renyi entropy rate of order 2, we suggest a way of detecting burstiness by comparing the quadratic sample entropy of the time series with the Renyi entropy rate of order 2 for a symmetric and a heavy-tailed distribution. "

So then, take a missile or projectile swarm headed for a US Navy warship or an Aircraft Carrier, as the swarm begins to diminish due to heavy defense, the defense system would detect a high entropy lull, if the swarm is being defeated, if the entropy or drop rate in numbers is slow to diminish, then it means the defense system must ramp up to overwhelm the swarm or expect the burstiness of the incoming swarm to challenge the system at a future higher level. However if the entropy drops of fast, then we know that round is being won and resources can now be allocated elsewhere for reloading or other potential threats.

Such swarm defense systems now act totally with artificial intelligence as things happen too fast for human decision making in the allocation or use directed decision making, so using this knowledge we can design a more robust system to challenge the out limits of swarm volleys against our warships . The US Navy has undergone surface warfare 'war games' testing the limits of their systems, in one of the first large exercises one Admiral volley'ed everything he had as soon as the game started, and overwhelmed the defense. Decimating the other side, they immediate stopped the wargame and had to start over.

He knew the vulnerability of their defense systems and the odds of getting through the layered defense. Today, most of those vulnerabilities have been shored up. Still in the future there will be swarms in much greater numbers to deal with, perhaps this is why I've prepared this article to help think of borrowing strategies and technologies from other domains to ensure an iron defense and survival. Think on this.

– Cite 1: Research Paper: "The Impact of Management Operations on the Virtualized Datacenter" by Vijayaraghavan Soundararajan and Jennifer M. Anderson. 2010 ACM 978-1-4503-0053-7 / 10/0.
– Cite 2: Thesis Paper: "The Benefits of a Network Tasking Order in Combat Search and Rescue Missions" by Murat Gocman. TUAF AFIT / GCE / ENG / 09-01. USAF, Institute of Technology – Wright-Patterson AFB.

Recommended Reading:

(1) Research Paper: "Layering as Optimization Decomposition: A Mathematical Theory of Network Architectures" by Mung Chiang, Steven H. Low, A. Robert Calderbank, and John C. Doyle. 0018-9219. 2007 IEEE Vol. 95, No. 1.
(2) Research Paper: NRL – Naval Research Logistics: "A model for geographically distributed combat interactions of swarming naval and air forces," by Connor MeLemore. 2016, DOI: 10.1002 / nav.21720.
(3) Research Paper: Calhoun – Institutional Archive of Post Graduate Naval School, Thesis; "2003-12 Defense of the sea base – an analytical model," by Henry S. Kim.


Source by Lance Winslow

Can We Use Burstiness Mathematical Modeling To Optimize Swarm Warfare Defense Systems?

SWTOR Crafting Guide – Don’t Be a NOOB! Learn SWTOR Crafting Here!


SWTOR Crafting is a bit different from the Crafting style of other MMO games. For one, you don’t need to do all the dirty work when your hands should be holding a light saber. It saves you a lot of SWTOR Max Bonus Time time if someone does the production and gathering of raw materials for you while you fight in the PVP or do Quests. In SWTOR Crafting, you are basically relying on your Companions to do the gathering and production of materials for you. You are still required to level up your skills and you will still choose which of the following two creation types, production or gathering, fits your style of play. However, crafting in SWTOR relies a lot on your Companions, their affection towards you and how you manage the missions that your companions takes.

To give you a general idea on how crafting works in this game, the SWTOR Crafting Guide for Newbies below is a good starting point that you can follow:

  • As you progress in the game, you will gain a Starship of your own and a maximum of 5 companions. (You actually have 1 more Race/Class-Specific Ship Droid that also serves as your Companion so you can actually have a maximum of 6). If you are a Republic, you can get your Starship at the end of the storyline for Coruscant. For Imperial players, the end of Dromund Kaas is when you will get your Starship. This part usually happens around level 10-15 for both sides, depending on how many missions you chose to skip and take.
  • Around level 8, you will also get your Companions permanently (you can meet your first Companion as early as level 3, but you will have to let him go until a later time). SWTOR Companions are the most important people that you will ever need if you are to succeed in SWTOR Crafting, so make sure that you treat them well. Because your companions are the ones who are doing the gathering and production of materials for you, you can concentrate more on the other facets of the game.
  • Your Crew / Companions can learn CREW Skills, which are divided into two types: Gathering and Production. Gathering Crew Skills are used for acquiring the raw materials needed for creating items. Production Crew Skills are used for crafting unique items.
  • Gathering missions usually take 5-15 minutes to finish. Producing items usually takes 1-3 minutes. There are many factors that influence the speed of gathering and production, but your Companions’ Affection towards you plays a critical part in speeding up your SWTOR Crafting time. If your Companions love you, they will typically finish their work faster. Of course, higher quality items take a longer time to produce so do not panic if your item production time takes too long. But as a general rule, if you want to speed up your crafting time in SWTOR, you must have a higher affection for the particular Companion that is doing the creation for you.
  • Your Crew members (Companions) have different Stat Bonuses that are unique to each one of them. For example, the Smuggler Companion Risha gets a +15 Bonus to Diplomacy and +1 to Slicing Critical. If you are a SMART player, you would definitely want to send Risha for some Diplomacy Missions to gather Medical Supplies. Critical Chances are also boosted by these stat bonuses so make sure that you choose the Companion with the right set of Stat Crafting Bonuses to do the item creation for you.
  • You can only learn THREE TOTAL CREW SKILLS per character in the game. This determines what kind of player you will turn out to be, so if you want to layout an organized future for your character, you must learn to choose your skills wisely. Although you are allowed a total of 3 SWTOR Crew Skills, you are restricted only to 1 Production Skill. You are not restricted on your Gathering Skills though so if you want to become a Trader and pile up the Credits by learning 3 Gathering Skills, feel free to do so.
  • You need to spend some SWTOR Credits (in-game money) before you can send your crew members on a Mission. The longer the time it takes for your Companion to return, the better chances that he or she will bring back a higher-level item or more Credits for you. When you craft an item, there is a small chance for it to become a critical success. A Crafting Critical Success typically adds an Augmentation Slot on your Gear, where you can place special enhancement items called Augments to improve your character’s stats. Augments can be produced through the Slicing Crew Skill.
  • One last thing, you can also use your Gathering Skills in the actual world map and not only during missions. For example, the Archaeology Gathering Skill allows you to scan your surroundings for crystal deposits that you can gather, the Bioanalysis Gathering Skill gives you the ability to check plants and defeated enemies, etc. The nodes / locations of these materials can be tracked on your Mini-map.

Just a reminder, don’t be confused when I say “this skill uses that skill” or “this skill relies on that skill”. Remember earlier when I told you that you can produce unique items from the raw materials that you acquired from Gathering? When you acquire an item from a Gathering Skill, for example let’s say you gathered a Color Crystal using the Archaeology Skill, you need a specific crafting skill in order to produce or craft a new item from that material. In the case of the Color Crystal, you need skill Artifice because that is the Crew skill that utilizes Color Crystals as raw material. Because of this, both Archaeology (Gathering) and Artifice (Production/Creation) are two interconnected Skills that rely on each other in order to succeed. As much as possible, you want to learn Interconnected Skills for your character because it is easier to do creation and gathering when your Crew skills are interconnected with each other.

The following Crew Skills are to be used for Gathering the materials needed in order to produce specific weapons, armors and items. Although they are used as Mission Skills for your Crew/Companions, Gathering Skills can also be used in the world map in order to gather items real-time. Let this Crafting Secrets and Noobs Guide fill you in!

Archaeology (Gathering Skill)

  • When used in missions, Archaeology allows you to gather Artifact Fragments, Color Crystal and Power Crystals which are necessary for creating Force-based armors and weapons.
  • When used in the World Map, this skill allows you to scan crystal formations.
  • Power Crystals and Artifact Fragments are used in the Production Skills Synthweaving and Artifice.
  • Color Crystals are used for Artifice.

Bioanalysis (Gathering Skill)

  • When used in missions, Bioanalysis allows you to acquire Biochemical Samples and Biochemical Compounds.
  • When used in the World Map, this skill allows you to scan the body of defeated enemies and plants.
  • Both Biochemical Samples and Compounds are used in the Production Skill

Biochem Diplomacy (Mission Skill)

  • When used in missions, Diplomacy will let you gather Medical Supplies.
  • In some specific missions, Diplomacy has the ability to give you bonus Light or Dark Points (For Example, Mission “Knows Too Much”) Diplomacy can also produce materials to create Rare Light Armors and gift for your Companions to raise their Affection towards you
  • Medical Supplies are used in the Production Skill

Biochem Investigation (Mission Skill)

  • When used in missions, Investigation allows you to gather Researched Compounds.
  • Investigation has the unique capability to Unlock New Missions and also create “Schematics” (Recipes) that can be sold or traded.
  • Researched Compounds are used in the Production Skill Armtech that allows you to craft weapons

Scavenging (Gathering Skill)

  • When used in missions, Scavenging allows you to acquire Scavenged Compounds and Scavenged Metals
  • When used in the World Map, this skill allows you to gather nearby scrap items and metals
  • Both Scavenged Compound and Scavenged Metals are used in the Production Skill Cybertech, Armstech and Armortech, which allows you to produce enhancements, weapons and armors.

Slicing (Gathering Skill)

  • When used in missions, Slicing allows you to gain profit by bringing back more Credit to you after the mission. (For example, if you spent 100 credits to start a Slicing Mission, you will get more than 100 credits in return from Slicing Safes, Acquiring Rare Equipments, etc). It is therefore a good way to stack profits and Credits consistently.
  • When used in the World Map, Slicing also allows you to open new aspects and instances within the game (For example, open a new path by picking a lock)
  • Slicing has the unique ability to produce Lockboxes and Cases, which can contain rare items in the game.
  • It is also the only way to acquire Augments, which can be used in Augmentation Slots of your gears. (Note, Augmentation slots are results only of a “Critical Success” when you craft a gear. So better let a Companion with a high Critical Chance for the Specific Item that you are producing do the crafting for you if you want Augmentations Slots to appear in your crafted items)

Treasure Hunting (Mission Skill)

  • When used in missions, Treasure Hunting allows you to gather Gemstones.
  • Not only that, it can also increase your profits pretty much the same way as Slicing does (For example, spending 200 Credits for a Treasure Hunting Mission can give you 300 credits in return)
  • Gemstones are used in the Production Skill Artifice which allows you to craft Force-based Weapons

Underworld Trading (Mission Skill)

  • When used as a Mission Skill. Underworld Trading allows you to gather Luxury Fabric and Underworld Metal.
  • Luxury Fabric is used in Synthweaving to produce Light Armor.
  • Underworld Metal is used in Synthweaving to produce Medium and Heavy Armors Underworld Metal can also be used in Armortech and Cybertech. Pretty useful item.

The following Crafting and Production skills are needed in order to craft and create unique items in the game. You are only allowed to learn ONE Production Skill, so choose your path wisely. It all depends on what is in demand in your server population though, so you might have to choose depending on what items are popular if you want to gain the biggest profits. Just something that you might want to remember though. Before you sleep at night (or leave the game, for that matter) queue some creation tasks for your Companions so that you can collect the finished items once you log back into the game. This saves your Companion a lot of time that you can spend on doing other things such as Gathering. With that, let us start the SWTOR Crafting Guide!


  • Creates armor for Bounty Hunter/Trooper class and Smuggler/Imperial Agent Class.
  • Creates Medium and Heavy Armor with additional stats for non-Force users Relies on Underworld Trading and Scavenging for raw materials


  • Creates weapons for Bounty Hunter/Trooper class and Smuggler/Imperial Agent Class.
  • Creates Blaster Barrels which are used for weapon enhancements and upgrades. Can also create weapons for Jedi Knights (Vibroblades with +Strength) and Consular Classes (Electrostaves with +Willpower).
  • HINT: Although you wouldn’t want to use these weapons for your main character, you might want to utilize Armstech for your Companions who are not able to wield items such as Light Sabers, etc). It is quite difficult to acquire good stat weapons that you can equip to your Companion because they have limited wielding ability. To get around this, you can utilize Armstech to solve the problems regarding Companion weapon rare drops
  • Relies on Investigation and Scavenging for raw materials


  • Creates a variety of upgrades that can be utilized by Sith Warriors/Jedi Knights and Sith Inquisitors/Jedi Consulars
  • Creates Relics
  • Creates Color Crystals which are used to improve Critical Rating and Endurance.
  • Color Crystals can also change the base color of your weapons.
  • Relies on Archaeology and Treasure Hunting


  1. Creates Consumables which can restore health and increase your Stats for a limited time.
  2. (Stim gives a moderate Primary Stat bonus boost for 1-2 hours, Adrenals give a large Secondary Stat boost for 15 seconds, Medpacs restores health and Med Units heal yourself and your Companion as well)
  3. Creates Implants – Relies on Bioanalysis and Diplomacy for raw materials.


  • Can create Armoring for all kinds of armors, Cores/Parts/Motors for Droid Improvement, Mod for armor/weapon enhancements and upgrades for your Starship.
  • Can create a bunch of helpful items such as Transport Beacons (Teleport) and Bombs that can have several status effects such as Slow, Stun, Movement Reduction, Damage Over Time (DOT), etc.
  • Creates BoP (Bind on Pickup) Mounts such as Custom Hoverbike and Hotrigged Speederbikes.
  • Relies on Scavenging and Underworld Training


  • Creates Light, Medium and Heavy Armors for Force-based users.
  • Relies on Archaeology and Underworld Trading
  • Special Thing to Note: Reverse Engineering

When you learn a Production Skill, it automatically grants you the ability to Reverse Engineer the item you are producing. For example, if you chose to learn Artifice, you will able to break down Light Sabers to study their recipes and components. You will get SOME of the materials used to create the item that you Reverse-Engineered, and you will also have the chance to learn better recipes through experience. The more that you try to Reverse-Engineer an item, the better chance that you have to discover an upgraded recipe for that specific item. This will allow you to create Purple-based items just from consistently reverse-engineering the recipes of Green-based items.

These are the just basic things to know about crafting in Star Wars The Old Republic and with this SWTOR Crafting Guide, you will surely understand how creation and production in SWTOR works. By learning how to craft and gather rare, high-quality items, you will surely increase your profits while also improving your own gears.

Techniques and strategies on what Crew Skills you should learn depend solely on your gameplay and your server’s population. Knowing what is popular in your server’s population will give you an edge and huge profits if you are able to gather and produce rare items that your server seeks. However, there are sure ways on how you can really increase your profits multiple just by following a specific plan regarding your choice of Crew Skills.

If you want to know how people are building millions of SWTOR credits instantly, you should follow a tried-and-tested strategy that works!


Source by Dino Royo

Can We Use Burstiness Mathematical Modeling To Optimize Swarm Warfare Defense Systems?

Final Fantasy XIV Guide Revealed – Best FF14 Leveling & Gil Guide


Final Fantasy XIV is somewhat an open-ended and difficult game, and having the best FF XIV guide is one of the best things a player should have. Whether you be an archer, gladiator, pugilist, or a lancer, the completeness of the guide for each town or zone will guide you so that you will be able to level up fast, not get lost around town, and getting the good quests.

The FF14 Guide should be tailored for each and every class and any player. This should also include gil and leveling guides. Of course, this MMORPG game gives emphasis to leveling up, and having a not only good but great strategy to level up is one of the strong points of a final fantasy 14 guide. Believe me, it’s no fun to be at some level for a while and having problems on what to do next or how to proceed. The best manual should enable gamers to climb the top and skip the base levels.

Leveling fast is great and gives great satisfaction, but also, your gear is also important in this game. You need to have proper acquisition of tools and weapons. This is also vital. Making them correctly through recipes also means more.

Now the Chrono FFXIV Online Guide is the best one among others available today. It contains both gil and leveling guides and covers much more. It has good instructions, complete with images and step-by-step instructions so that you will be able to find what you are looking for and what you want fast. One thing also, one of the best feature that this offer is that free updates are available. These updates are done regularly and frequently. Final Fantasy 14 is still new, so expect to have more changes and more content added.


Source by Dennis Falmer

Can We Use Burstiness Mathematical Modeling To Optimize Swarm Warfare Defense Systems?

My Four Favorite Air Guns


Recreational shooting was popular in Colonial America and it remains very popular today. One big difference between Colonial days and today is the density of the population. Most of us live in suburban or other highly populated areas that make going out in our own little Back 40 to do some firearm’s target practice both impractical and probably illegal.

Rifles and handguns are also expensive to buy and can be problematic to transport and store. For people who enjoy recreational shooting air guns are an inexpensive and practical solution. A single day at the range with a conventional hand gun can cost you more than $100 with fees and ammo costs. For the same amount of money you can outfit yourself with a good performing airgun rifle or pistol that you will have forever. Air gun ammo is also very cheap, less than one penny a round in most cases, but there are some exceptions which I will explain later.

Here’s a short description of my four favorite air guns and the reasons that I enjoy them. I could easily double or triple the list but the short list will give you a good overview of some of the types of air guns that are readily available.

The Crosman 2240 is a CO2 powered single shot, bolt action pistol. It takes.22 caliber pellets and shoots at a respectable 460 feet per second (fps) muzzle velocity. The barrel is 10 in. long and it is rifled which makes this an excellent target shooter out to 30 yd. or so. The 2240 is very popular and there is a big variety of aftermarket parts that allow you to customize this target pistol into a one-of.

The Crosman 1077 is a.177 caliber CO2 powered pellet rifle styled after a military carbine. This is a fine rifle to shoot because it pops off 12 rounds as quickly as you can pull the trigger. It does not make much noise either so you will not disturb your neighbors. This pellet rifle is very popular in Europe too and also has many after market parts for your own customization.

Probably the most fun of the bunch is the Gamo Viper.22 caliber shotgun and rifle combination. This CO2 powered rifle fires airgun shotgun shells at 750 fps in a grouping pattern similar to a conventional 12 gauge shotgun. If you have a few hundred yards of safety down range you can shoot skeet with empty soda cans. The shotgun rounds are a little pricey at about 30 cents each but you can reload your spent shells to save some money. You can also mount a scope and use it with.22 caliber pellet rounds for accurate target shooting out to 50 yds.

The Gamo Big Cat 1200 is a break barrel.177 caliber single shot rifle. To charge the gun with compressed air you fold it at the barrel, hence the name break barrel. This rifle has a muzzle velocity of 1200 fps with the right ammo and is too dangerous to shoot in a back yard range because the pellet would go right through a fence board. It comes with a 4×32 scope and when you take the time to zero the rifle it becomes an extremely accurate range target shooter.

Air guns can provide a satisfying shooting experience without the noise and at a fraction of the cost of conventional firearms. That does not mean that air guns should ever be treated as toys, however. They demand the same safe shooting environment and range safety procedures as any other ballistic weapon.


Source by Peter Boston

Can We Use Burstiness Mathematical Modeling To Optimize Swarm Warfare Defense Systems?

Artistic Value in Video Games


I have wanted to talk about this for some time now, but could not find the words to get my point across. I have seen articles and news stories over the years about how school shootings and violent children are due to violent video games. No actual evidence or research to back it up, but I cannot get angry over this. They say that they are just a child's play thing, dismiss it, and say that there is nothing positive that comes out of playing games. Every generation people find something to blame for all the bad behavior of children. People would blame books, art, movies, music, and right now video games are in the hot seat. All forms of media and art go through this before being known for the value that they give to society. Games let you experience the creativity that can be drawn in from all forms of art. You are the one who pushes the story that could have been read from a page, you make the decisions that actor is directed to make, you experience the scenery that could be viewed from a painting, and you are the one who experiences the music that is created for the game. All these types of art are brought together to make an experience that, if done correctly, can last with people forever.

I remember I as playing a game called Fallout 3 and I was given a choice. I could disarm a bomb for a town for some coin or blow up the bomb, along with the town, for more coin. Since I made the decision to save the town last time I played this time I decided to see how the game would change if I blew up the bomb. After the explosion I revisited where the town once was. There was one lone survivor. She had no idea that I blew up the town and she was still her cheerful self just thankful that I got out in time. Now I know she only survived because she gives quests in the game, but that moment stuck with me. This lonely girl who had been physically altered due to the explosion and the radiation. I have never experienced regret in such a strong way before this moment. I wanted to return to a previous save, but could not do so. I just sat there for a while and stared at the screen looking at what my actions have caused and in that single moment I was playing more than a game. I was experiencing something different. Something that I had never experienced before. Games can be more than just a child's play thing or a thing to kill time. It can express creativity and emotion like any other great work of art.


Source by Jack George

Pin It on Pinterest