Video Games and Theories of Learning: Spotlight on JP Gee and Howard Gardner

Video Games and Theories of Learning: Spotlight on JP Gee and Howard Gardner

Plenty of people in all stages of their lives are fascinated by video games. The games practice can be long, difficult, and challenging, yet the players consider it fun and inspiring. It is hard not to admit that playing games has social and cultural significance in our society. According to JP Gee (2003), there are learning principles (LP) that are built into good video games. But these principals do not necessarily boost learning. Several factors are necessary for learning to occur in games and perphas develop intelligences in the semiotic domain of the daily life. Gee teaches that there are thirty-six learning principles possible to be found and developed in games.

To explain this, Gee defines games as semiotic domain (SD), which, in turn, is part of the wider SD of everyday life. So to speak, a SD is a certain division of the world (whether a location, practice, field of study, etc.) and it can encompass sub-domains. For instance, first and third-person shooter games are a well-defined sub-domain of the games SD. By introducing the concept of SD to games studies, Gee gives us examples of SD like rap, modernist paintings and games of the genre first person shooter. Gee believes that to achieve learning from a SD is necessary three things: 1) learn to experience the world in different ways, 2) learn to form affiliations with members of the SD, and 3) learn how to gain the necessary resources for future learning and problem solving in the domain, as well as in related domains. As we can see, Gee seeks to approximate games to a broader definition of literacy that involves different types of "visual literacy." Following this notice of literacy, people are literate in a domain only if they are able to recognize and produce meaning in the field. Furthermore, Gee proposes that we think of literacy as inherently connected to social practices. In fact, in the contemporary culture, articulate language (spoken, gestural, or written) is not the only important communication system. Nowadays, images, symbols, charts, diagrams, equations, artifacts and many other visual symbols play a particularly important role in our daily lives. For example, it is important to learn visual literacy to "read" the pictures in an advertisement. Furthermore, words and images are juxtaposed or integrated in many ways: in magazines, newspapers, textbooks, software, etc. Images take more space and have meanings that can be independent of the words in texts. In this sense, games are multimodal texts. They combine moving images and music with language.

Given the various forms of human activity in the complex society we live in, it becomes necessary to develop a new model of intelligence that allows us to embrace a pluralistic view of intelligence. Howard Gardner's (1983) important definition of intelligence was developed by means of a model of seven basic intelligences known as the theory of multiple intelligences (MI). MI represents a headache and more pragmatic view of human nature. The eight intelligences are defined as the following skills:
1) to use language with competency (linguistic),
2) to use logical reasoning in mathematics and science (logical-mathematical),
3) to perceive details of the visual-spatial world and to manipulate objects in mind (spatial),
4) to understand, create and enjoy music and musical concepts (musical),
5) to use the body skillfully (bodily-kinesthetic);
6) to recognize subcontractors of the behavior of others and respond appropriately to them (interpersonal),
7) to understand the one's own feelings (intrapersonal), and
8) to recognize patterns and differences in nature (naturalist).

These categories or intelligences represent elements that can be found in all cultures, namely music, words, logic, paintings, social interaction, physical expression, inner reflection and appreciation of nature. Thus, unlike a learning style, which is a general approach that the individual can apply equally to any content imaginable, intelligence, to Gardner, is a capability with its own processes that are geared to specific contents in the world (eg, musical sounds or spatial patterns).

From this perspective, Gee (2003) and Gardner (1983) value the interplay between learning and skills present in everyday life (culture) of people. So when we think about the SD approach, as developed by Gee, we realized that the interaction between both theories, the SD of everyday life, the largest existing set – where the intelligences are located – encompasses the SD of games. Note that Gardner points out that one of the goals of his endeavor is to examine the educational implications of a theory of multiple intelligences. Considering that, Gee listed thirty-six learning principles present in games, and considering the importance and popularity of games in contemporary culture, it seems interesting to begin to investigate how the learning principles can relate to the multiple intelligences. So we discussed here some possibilities of association between these theories. To accomplish this, the question we want to take up is this: What can the learning principles built into good games could have for the development of multiple intelligences, which are so important to everyday life? In other words: What is the relationship between these semiotic domains? To answer this, we have used the following research methodology: literature review, research on websites, observation of games, construction of the model of interaction between the two learning proposals, and analysis of the model.

Gee describes thirty-six learning principles which can be found in games. It is noteworthy that not all learning principals listed by the author are necessarily found on a single game – there is the possibility that a game conveys one or more of these principles. The analysis shows that to develop one or more intelligences, the learner must be immersed in one or more semiotic domains which have the conditions and qualities needed to facilitate its development. For example: there is no use to an apprentice of a sport modality to have access to only one modality for the full development of his Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence, he needs to have access to various sports, several sub-semiotic domains which are part of the larger semiotic domain of the sports. Besides that, there are other extrinsic and intrinsic factors (motivation, injuries, and appropriate training materials, etc.) that are important to succeed in the entire domain, like a sport modality. Examples of several predominant athletes demonstrate this fact: Formula 1 drivers, MMA fighters and Olympic athletes. In this sense, our research shows the existence of a binomial unexcelled: without learning principles, there are no good games, while without the valorization of a domain in the semiotic domain of everyday life there is no way forward within that domain. Thus, multiple intelligences can not be fully developed in certain cultural contexts and the learning principles are worthless in these contexts

Moreover, the Interpersonal intelligence is very important in learning. We found that it is associated to thirty of the thirty-six learning principles. The Interpersonal intelligence clearly arises from cooperative work, community involvement, simulations of large groups, dedication to social issues, etc. Precisely the importance of Interpersonal intelligence, as Gardner notes, has been reduced in the contemporary educational scene: the sensitivity to other individuals as individuals and the ability to cooperate with others are increasingly less important now than it did in the past. Thus, we believe that the results of the comparison between these theories put into question the ways we design and manage education in its various spheres. For this reason, we believe that further analysis of the intersection of the theories studied here may help us in both the use of games as a pedagogical proposition and in thinking about education.

The association between both theories seemed productive for us to reflect on games and learning in general. Firstly, it should be noted that not all games can promote all learning principles. This is because there are many factors in the semiotic domain of everyday life that can hinder learning and development of multiple intelligences. And this occurs even when the game conveys the learning principle or the basic conditions to develop them, which demonstrates a close association between the principles and intelligences.

Secondly, the Interpersonal intelligence is associated to thirty learning principles. This demonstrates the complexity of learning and inevitably shows the challenges that contemporary education must face. In fact, the study of the interaction between the theories can help us think about new ways of teaching and learning inside and outside of school. It seems that the relevance of Gee's is highlighting the importance of games culturally and for learning, while Gardner's learning theory emphasizes the necessity of favorable conditions (environment, mentors, cultural appreciation, etc.) for the development of skills. We should remember that skills or intelligences are valued differently between cultures.

We believe that good video games represent, in fact, opportunities for direct and indirect learning of content and skills in the semiotic domain of everyday life, given its intimate link to the majority of the intelligences.

Work cited

Howard Gardner. Frames of mind . The theory of multiple intelligences (New York: Basic Books, 1983).

James P. Gee. What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy (New York: Palgrave, 2003).

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Source by Marco A. Bomfoco

G-Dragon: The King of K-pop

G-Dragon: The King of K-pop

Who do you think is the most popular k-pop idol? Who do you think is the most influential k-pop star? There could be many different voices and opinions, but the majority of people in the k-pop industry would say it’s G-Dragon.
As the leader of BIGBANG, G-Dragon led his team to the top in the k-pop world, writing and producing the k-pop group’s numerous hits. And he got to the summit as a solo singer too, while his innovative and polished own songs have caused a sensation in the world of k-pop. That’s not all. G-Dragon is well known for his great taste in fashion, and he is a trendsetter who is loved by young people all over the world.
No doubt, he is one of a kind, and he is now a role model of countless young k-pop idols. Even Korean celebrities love and admire the k-pop star, and that’s why he is called “Celebrities’ celebrity”.
So, are you a big fan of G-Dragon? Do you want to know all the stories about the king of k-pop? <G-Dragon: The King of K-pop> contains all the things about G-Dragon. The author, who has been working as a k-pop journalist since 2010 gives you answers to all the questions about G-Dragon such as “What is his real personality like?”, “How rich is he?” and “How do Korean general public think of him?” The book also includes various stories behind G-Dragon. Welcome to the real world of k-pop. Enjoy your time!

By UK Jung

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Aiming to Please 1

Aiming to Please 1

There’s nothing Maruka won’t do for her little PR company and its sexy president!
But does that have to include completely submitting to the whims of their clients?
Maruka hops from one PR gig to the next never sure what kind of bizarre demands await her…
But whatever the challenge, you can count on her to give it her all!

By Li Xiao Ji

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Japanese Fairy Tales Animation

Japanese Fairy Tales Animation

It is a moving picture book application of Japanese old tale with short sentences.
Let’s get together and have fun with parents and children!
Ideal for studying English and Japanese.


・Princess Kaguya/かぐや姫(かぐやひめ)
・The Old Man with a lump/こぶとりじいさん
・Urasima Taro/浦島太郎(うらしまたろう)

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・koebu 黄紅

・youtube audiolibrary
Kevin MacLeod(のIshikari Loreは、クリエイティブコモンズ(BY)(でライセンス付与されています。
・youtube audiolibrary
Twin MusicomのClassical Carnivaleは、クリエイティブコモンズ(BY)でライセンス付与されています。


By yumearu Co.,Ltd.

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Kana Nishino is married!

At the beginning of 2019 singer Kana Nishino announced that she would be going on a hiatus. Shortly after the announcement, a few tabloids speculated that she would be taking a break mainly to spend time with her rumored boyfriend.

Marriage and pregnancy weren’t speculated, but it seems they missed the mark on the first one. Kana has married her manager of several years. He has been repeatedly described as very handsome.

Rumblings of their relationship originally began back in 2016, when the two were spotted jogging. She’s since been able to keep the relationship very low profile, dodging tabloids for the most part.

Kana’s hiatus officially began last month at the conclusion of her “Kana Nishino Love Collection Live 2019” tour. When she returns fans will no doubt have more sentimental love songs to look forward to.


(via livedoor)

The post Kana Nishino is married! appeared first on ARAMA! JAPAN.


“I will take the ring…though…I do not know the way.” – Frodo Baggins 


“I will take the ring…though…I do not know the way.” – Frodo Baggins …

🏞 “I will take the ring…though…I do not know the way.” – Frodo Baggins 🏞

#FantasticalCosplay #cosplay #cosplays #cosplayer #cosplayers #cosplaying #cosplaylife #cosplayworld #cosplaycommunity #cosplaylove #cosplaylover #lovecosplay #cosplayfun #cosplayway #cosplaysan #cosplaylicious #instacosplay #cosplayersofinstagram #cosplayvscharacter #sidebyside #sidebysidecosplay #malecosplay #cosplayboy #cosplayguy #costume #LordoftheRings #Frodo #hobbit #lotr

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Oyama Tofu Festival, 16th Mar–17th Mar, 2019

Oyama Tofu Festival, 16th Mar–17th Mar, 2019

16th Mar–17th Mar, 2019